1. The biggest benefit of the ACA is that it lowers overall health care costs. It does this by providing insurance for millions and making preventive care free. This means people receive treatment before they need expensive emergency room services. In 2016, the cost of health care services increased 1.2 percent for the year. That’s much less than the price increase of 4 percent in 2004. (Source: “Health Care Services Depress Recent PCE Inflation Readings,” Dallas Fed, August 2016.) For more, see The Rising Cost of Health Care by Year and Its Causes.
  2. It requires all insurance plans to cover 10 essential health benefits. These include treatment for mental health, addiction and chronic diseases. Without these services, many patients wind up in the emergency room. Those costs are passed onto Medicaid, and therefore the taxpayer.
  3. Insurance companies can no longer deny anyone coverage for pre-existing conditions. They can’t drop them or raise premiums if they get sick.
  1. It eliminates lifetime and annual coverage limits.
  2. Children can stay on their parents’ health insurance plans up to age 26. As of 2012, more than 3 million previously uninsured young people were added. This increases profit for insurance companies. They receive more premiums from these healthy individuals. (Source: Department of Health and Human Services.)
  1. States must set up insurance exchanges or use the federal government’s exchange. Either method makes it easier to shop for plans.
  2. The middle class (earning up to 400 percent of the poverty level) receives tax credits on their premiums. It expands Medicaid to 138 percent of the federal poverty level, providing this coverage to adults without children for the first time.
  3. It eliminates the Medicare “doughnut hole” gap in coverage by 2020.
  4. Businesses with more than 50 employees must offer health insurance. They receive tax credits to help with the costs.
  5. It lowers the budget deficit by $143 billion by 2022. It does this in three ways. First, it reduces the government’s health care costs. Second, it raises taxes on some businesses and higher income families. Third, it shifts cost burdens to health care providers and pharmacy companies. (Source: “CBO Report on Health Care Reform and the Budget,” Congressional Budget Office. “What Health Insurance Ruling Means,” The Wall Street Journal, June 28, 2012. “Medicaid Expansion,” National Public Radio, June 27, 2012.)


  1. Three million to 5 million people lost their company-sponsored health care plans. Many businesses found it more cost-effective to pay the penalty and let their employees purchase insurance plans on the exchanges. Other small businesses find they can get better plans through the state-run exchanges. (Source: “The Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Employment-based Health Insurance,” Congressional Budget Office, March 15, 2012.)
  1. Thirty million people never had company plans and relied on private health insurance. Insurance companies canceled many of their plans because their policies didn’t cover the ACA’s 10 essential benefits. For those who lost those cut-rate plans, the costs of replacing them are high. The ACA requires services that many people don’t need, like maternity care. (Source: “The Keep Your Plan Promise,”, June 28, 2012.)
  2. Increased coverage raised overall health care costs in the short term. That’s because many people received preventive care and testing for the first time. It was expensive to treat illnesses that had been ignored for decades. (Source: “2009 Study on Preventive Health Care,” Congressional Budget Office, August 7, 2009.)
  3. The ACA taxed those who didn’t purchase insurance. But many avoided the tax through an ever-expanding list of exemptions.
  1. Four million people chose to pay the tax rather than pay for coverage. The Congressional Budget Office estimated they paid $54 billion. (Source: “Tax Breaks Versus Tax Hikes,” The Washington Post Fact Checker, July 6, 2012.)
  2. In 2013, the ACA raised the income tax rate for 1 million individuals with incomes above $200,000. It also raised taxes for 4 million couples filing joint returns on incomes exceeding $250,000. The rate increased from 1.45 percent to 2.35 percent on income above the threshold. They also pay an additional 3.8 percent Medicare tax. That applies to the lesser of income from dividends, capital gains, rent and royalties or income above the threshold. (Source: “What Obamacare Means for Taxes,” Smart Money, June 28, 2012.)
  3. Starting in 2013, medical device manufacturers and importers paid a 2.3 percent excise tax. Note: This tax was suspended for 2016-2018. Indoor tanning services paid a 10 percent excise tax. This might discourage those businesses from hiring new employees.
  4. Starting in 2013, families can deduct medical expenses that exceed 10 percent of income. Before, they could deduct any expenses that exceeded 7.5 percent of income.
  5. Pharmaceutical companies pay an extra $84.8 billion in fees between 2013 and 2023. That pays for closing the “doughnut hole” in Medicare Part D. Drug costs could rise if the companies pass this onto consumers.
  6. In 2020, insurance companies will be assessed a 40 percent excise tax on “Cadillac” health plans. These are plans with annual premiums exceeding $10,200 for individuals or $27,500 for families. Many of these plans are for people in high-risk pools, such as older workers or those with dangerous jobs. Most of the tax will be passed onto the companies and employees, raising premiums and deductibles. (Sources: “Federal Budget Bill to Delay ACA’s Cadillac Tax & Suspend Two Other Taxes,” Kistler Tiffany Benefits, December 21, 2015. “Cadillac Tax Explained,” Kaiser Health News, March 18, 2010.)

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